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1.

Hydrothermal Treatment of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch to Produce Green Solid Fuel

Pandji Prawisudha, Achmad Rofi Irsyad, Srikandi Novianti, Kunio Yoshikawa, Ari Darmawan Pasek
The 2nd AUN-Seed NET Regional Conference on Energy Engineering 2014 (2014)

Srikandi Novianti (3 records)

Abstract
Oil palm is mainly grown in Southeast Asia, with Indonesia alone has 6 million hectares of oil palm plantation, and another 4 million by 2015 planned for biofuel production. This condition will produce massive amount of oil palm’s Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB), accounted for one-third of the Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) yield in weight, which can be used as carbon-neutral solid fuel. The usage of the EFB, however, is hindered by its bulky size, high moisture content and considerable amount of unwanted impurities such as potassium, responsible for slagging and fouling in the furnace. In this research, medium temperature hydrothermal process was used to upgrade the characteristic of EFB as solid fuel. Fresh and shredded EFB was processed in 2.5 L reactor, injected with saturated steam at moderate processing temperature of 150 to 200 °C and 30 min holding period. Subsequent liquid-solid separation process was conducted to observe the remaining potassium in the solid product. Physical composition, heating value and remaining potassium content in the solid product was measured afterwards. The process yielded brittle, granular product similar to carbonized biomass. The highest fixed carbon content as solid fuel quality indicator was found at 200 °C processing temperature with doubled fixed carbon content to that of EFB, while up to 77 % potassium reduction was observed at only 150 °C processing temperature. It can be concluded that the combination of hydrothermal process and liquid-solid separation in optimum temperature will produce a carbon-neutral, potassium-free solid fuel suitable for conventional solid fuel furnace.

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2.

Upgrading of Palm Oil Empty Fruit Bunch Employing Hydrothermal Treatment in Lab-scale and Pilot Scale

Srikandi Novianti, MK Biddinika, Pandji Prawisudha, Kunio Yoshikawa
Procedia of Environmental Science (2014)

Srikandi Novianti (3 records)

Abstract
In this research, the hydrothermal treatment (HT) was applied to treat a waste stream from the commercial production of palm oil. The investigation both lab-scale and pilot-scale reactors have been conducted. The hydrothermal products were characterized and their fuel qualities were evaluated. The results indicated that the fuel qualities of the products improved after HT; such as higher carbon content, higher energy density, and lower O/C and H/C ratios compared with the raw feedstock. The HT products derived from the lab-scale and pilot-scale reactors had similar chemical compositions and energy density which indicated the feasibility of an up-scale application for this technology.

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3.

Municipal solid waste treatment using hydrothermal process to produce a renewable energy source

Pandji Prawisudha, Srikandi Novianti
Inovasi Online (2012)

Srikandi Novianti (3 records)

Abstract
An alternative treatment by converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to alternative fuel by employing hydrothermal treatment in 1 ton/batch capacity commercial scale plant was conducted by applying medium pressure saturated steam at approximately 215 °C in a stirred reactor for 30 minutes. The process yielded uniform pulp-like product with four-fold increasing density to reach 75% waste volume reduction. The product also showed an average heating value of 18 MJ/kg, which is similar to that of low-grade sub-bituminous coal. The energy balance calculation revealed that the required energy for the hydrothermal treatment was as low as one-ninth of the energy content in the product, which indicates that the hydrothermal treatment is a self-sustain system and requiring lower energy than conventional waste-to-fuel treatment processes. It can be concluded that the hydrothermal treatment would be a viable way to treat and convert the MSW to alternative renewable energy source.

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4.

Jellyfish collagen stimulates maturation of mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells

Agus Budiawan Naro Putra, Kosuke Nishi, Ryusuke Shiraishi, Mikiharu Doi, Takuya Sugahara
Journal of Functional Foods (2015)

A.B. Naro Putra (4 records)

Abstract
Jellyfish has recently attracted much attention for various applications, including functional foods due to its abundance of collagen. Jellyfish collagen, extracted from Nemopilema nomurai, was found to stimulate murine macrophage-like J774.1 cells. However, few reports have determined the immunostimulatory effects of jellyfish collagen on the innate immune response. We herein demonstrate the effect of jellyfish collagen on mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Jellyfish collagen stimulated TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and IL-12 production by BMDCs as the result of the elevation of gene expression level of these cytokines. In addition, jellyfish collagen-treated BMDCs have more wrinkles and longer pseudopodia on the cell surface compared with the control cells. Jellyfish collagen also stimulated cell-surface MHC-II expression level. Furthermore, jellyfish collagen downregulated phagocytosis capacity of BMDCs. Thus, our findings suggest that JC has the potential to activate DCs and thereby contribute to health promotion.

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5.

Activation of macrophages stimulated by the bengkoang fiber extract through toll-like receptor 4

Ika Dyah Kumalasari, Kosuke Nishi, Agus Budiawan Naro Putra, Takuya Sugahara
Food & Function (2014 )

A.B. Naro Putra (4 records)

Abstract
Bengkoang (Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban) is an edible root tuber containing fairly large amounts of carbohydrates and crude fibers. Our previous studies showed that the bengkoang fiber extract (BFE) stimulates activation of macrophages, leading to induction of phagocytotic activity and cytokine production. In the present study we investigated the mechanism underlying activation of murine macrophages by BFE. BFE increased production of TNF-α, IL-6, and nitric oxide by J774.1 cells. In addition BFE also facilitated the gene expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase. We examined the effect of a TLR4 inhibitor on cytokine production to investigate the membrane receptor of macrophage activation by BFE. Treatment of J774.1 cells with the TLR4 inhibitor significantly inhibited production of IL-6 and TNF-α, suggesting that TLR4 is the target membrane receptor for BFE. The main signal molecules located downstream of TLR4 such as JNK, p38, ERK, and NF-κB were activated by BFE treatment. The immunostimulatory effect of BFE was cancelled by the pectinase treatment, suggesting that the active ingredient in BFE is pectin-like molecules. Overall results suggested that BFE activates J774.1 cells via the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways.

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6.

Application of information and communication technology and data sharing management scheme for the coastal fishery using real-time fishery information

Ramadhona Saville, Katsumori Hatanakaa, Minoru Sano, Masaaki Wada
Ocean & Coastal Management (2015)

Ramadhona Saville (6 records)

Abstract
In this paper, we propose an automatic computation and data sharing scheme to support management system in coastal fishery using real-time fishery information through information and communication technology (ICT). In Japan, several species of fisheries commodity have not been specified in Total Allowable Catch policy, causing a lot of confusion on fishery cooperatives and fishermen on how to set the catch limit. To deal with the problem, in the previous study, we developed catchable stock index, a method to estimate a certain extent of resource via the swept area method. However, as the calculation of the index was computed on a GIS software manually, it was very time consuming, costly and unable to give an immediate evaluation of the fishing operation. This study aims to support management system in a coastal fishery through the development of automatic catchable stock index algorithm. In this study, ICT was utilized to obtain and transmit the real-time data sharing of fishery information as well as to distribute the computation results to the fishermen and fishery cooperative. The data used were vessels trajectories and catch records, which included the start/end time and catch amount of each fishing operation. The catchable stock index was automatically computed in an originally developed cloud computing service. We have conducted the test run of the present method in sea cucumber dredge-net fishery on the coast of Rumoi City, Hokkaido, Japan. Data were collected from the entire vessels in Rumoi (16 vessels) during the 2012 and 2013 fishing seasons. The results were returned to the fishermen via the Internet each day during the fishing season, therefore, fishermen were able to immediately evaluate their catch. The estimated catchable stock index for the 2012 and 2013 seasons was 85.5 tons and 92.3 tons, respectively. By referring to the present system, fishermen voluntarily stopped the 2012 and 2013 fishing season several weeks earlier than their initial schedule to avoid overfishing. Moreover, in the previous study, the spacing of the grid has been decided empirically, but in this study, the adequate grid size could be evaluated due to the fast computation through ratio of the area of a grid cell to the total dredged area. In light of the evidence, the present automatic algorithm provided useful information for supporting the self-management of this coastal fishery.

Full article

 
7.

Structural, electrical, and optical properties of CoxNi1-xO films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

Teuku Muhammad Roffi, Kazuo Uchida, Shinji Nozaki
Journal of Crystal Growth (2014)

Teuku Muhammad Roffi (4 records)

Abstract
Thin films of cobalt-nickel oxide (CoxNi1-xO, x=0.01, 0.02, 0.08, 0.17, 0.22, 0.35, 0.56, 0.72) were grown on Al2O3 substrate by atmospheric pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (APMOCVD). The effect of the cobalt composition on the structural, morphological, optical, and electrical properties of the films was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that all of the films grew with a preferred orientation towards [1 1 1]NiO and a twinned structure. Cobalt was well dispersed in the NiO structure up to x=0.08. CoxNi1-xO alloys were formed from x=0.17 to x=0.22, while phase-separated NiO and CoxNi1−xO formed when x≥0.35. The bandgap of the CoxNi1−xO film was found to decrease with increasing cobalt composition. Four-point probe measurements showed that the resistivity of the film also decreased with increasing cobalt composition, reaching a minimum of 0.006 Ωcm. Hall measurements of the films revealed n-type conductivity. The correlation between the presence of cobalt in different ionization states and the observed decrease in resistivity as well as the type of conductivity in CoxNi1−xO is discussed.

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8.

An Experimental Study on Confined RC Wall Boundary Regions under Uniaxial Monotonic and Cyclic Reversal Loadings

Eko Yuniarsyah, Rafik Taleb, Susumu Kono, Masanori Tani
The 16th Japan-Korea-Taiwan Joint Seminar on Earthquake Engineering for Building structures (SEEBUS) (2014)

Eko Yuniarsyah (2 records)

Abstract
The aim of this paper is to present the experimental results on eight RC elements with a rectangular section representing wall boundary regions tested under uniaxial monotonic and cyclic reversal loadings. All specimens were constructed with the same cross-sectional dimensions but had varying transverse reinforcement spacing, number of cross-ties, and its diameter. The main purpose of the experimental tests was to investigate the effects of reinforcement detailing and loading history on axial load capacities and failure modes. It was found that the lack of closely spaced transverse reinforcement caused buckling of longitudinal reinforcement. Moreover, a compression zone could not be sustained and spread of concrete crushing by confined core concrete could not be ensured. A limit on the maximum spacing of transverse reinforcement and the minimum number of ties should be considered to improve confinement and to provide the lateral support of longitudinal bars.

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9.

The development of a remote fish finder system for set-net fishery

Masaaki Wada, Shigeya Yasui, Ramadhona Saville, Katsumori Hatanaka
IEEE OCEANS St Johns 2014 (2014)

Ramadhona Saville (6 records)

Abstract
A remote fish finder system for effective set-net fishery, which enable to visualize as well as recognize catch amount and the fish kind, is proposed in this paper. In order to improve fishing efficiency and obtain the highest possible profit of set-net fishery, set-net monitoring is needed by coastal fishermen. Set-net monitoring can be used to estimate fish catch amount within the set-net, fish kind trapped or to estimate the adequate timing to lift the set-net. Set-net monitoring has been practiced for several decades using conventional equipment. However, the equipment has many weaknesses, namely, high priced, large sized, troublesome maintenance and poor data record (paper based data record). This study aimed to develop a remote fish finder system for set-net monitoring to meet those problems. The development of remote fish finder system is based on a floating echo sounder for data acquisition, a cloud server for data storage, and an iPad application for data display. The experiment for this study has been conducted from June 28 until December 25, 2013 in two experimental sites in Hakodate, Hokkaido, Japan. The algorithm development for estimations in this study was based on empirical estimation of fishermen when they observed the printed-out sounder reflection data. The empirical estimation was practiced by observing the intensity of signs of fish in certain depth. Statistics of reflection data in several layers depth during sunrise were used as indicators to estimate. Catch amount within set-net could be estimated through multiple regression analysis, while fish kind classification was through linear discriminant analysis. The results of catch estimation via multiple regression analysis has been obtained with multiple R 2 = 0.89. Yet, single dominant fish kind could be estimated better than bycatch using this algorithm. On the other hand, fish kind within set-net could be classified with 83% of correctness. In order to improve the accuracy, the data sampling must be continued at least a whole fishing season.

Full article

 
10.

Marine Observation Framework Using ICT for Mariculture in Indonesia

Wada, Masaaki, Katsumori Hatanaka, Ramadhona Saville, I. Nyoman Radiarta, and Ketut Sugama
IEEE, Oceans - San Diego, 2013 (2013)

Ramadhona Saville (6 records)

Abstract
According to The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2012, a publication of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, five Asian nations topped the world ranking of mariculture producers in 2010. In order, they were China, India, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. Asia’s maricultural production was 1,799,101 tons in 1970, accounting for 70.1% of the world total. Since then, maricultural production in Asia has continued to grow as a percentage of the world total year by year. In 2010, Asian production reached 53,301,157 tons, about 30 times the 1970 level and 89.0% of global production. World production by maricultural environment shows that about 62.0% comes from freshwater, 7.9% from brackish water, and 30.1% from seawater. Since 2000, the trend is for freshwater production to increase slightly and seawater production to decline slightly. Given this background, promoting mariculture to expand exports of fish and shellfish is a key issue of national development plans in Indonesia, the world’s fourth largest maricultural producer. However, maricultural technology is still in the development stage, and production is not stable, plagued as it is with problems like sudden, large-scale die-offs. Maricultural technology can be broadly divided into egg and hatchling production technology and cultivating technology. In Indonesia, egg and hatchling production technology has been under development for high-added-value milkfish and grouper through the “Project for Development of Egg and Hatchling Production Technology for Many Species,” begun in 1994. Since 2003, organizations such as a national maricultural research center have been transferring that technology to the private sector. On the other hand, cultivating technology, which concerns raising fish from juvenile to adult stages, is still under development. Here, one issue is the establishment of maricultural technology that enables stable production immune to regime shifts. The authors have begun the observation of the marine environment to establish maricultural technology in Indonesia with the objective of enabling stable production and distribution of safe and reliable fish and shellfish into the future.

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PPI Jepang 2012